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How and when should you use the curly {}" braces in programming specifically in C++ for beginners?


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Curly braces are used for initialization of objects. If the object supports it the members (storage) of the object will be directly assigned to the values in the braces.

std::string s{"a string"}; 
int a[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20 }; 
struct X 
 int x; 
 int y; 
 int z; 
X x{ 1, 3, 5}; 
X y =  { 4, 5, 6}; 
This is called Unified Initialization, so that there is a consistent syntax, based around curly braces:

int i{};     // initialized built-in type, equals to int i{0}; 
int j{10};  // initialized built-in type 
int a[]{1, 2, 3, 4} // Aggregate initialization 
X x1{};    // default constructor 
X x2{1};   // Parameterized constructor; 
X x4{x3}; // copy-constructor 
int* arr = new int[5]{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };  //dynamic allocation with initialization 


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